Organelle-specific initiation of cell death
In a majority of pathophysiological settings, cell death is not accidental - it is controlled by a complex molecular apparatus. Such a system operates like a computer: it receives several inputs that inform on the current state of the cell and the extracellular microenvironment, integrates them and generates an output. Thus, depending on a network of signals generated at specific subcellular sites, cells can respond to stress by attemptinwg to recover homeostasis or by activating molecular cascades that lead to cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we discuss the mechanisms whereby cellular compartments - including the nucleus, mitochondria, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, cytoskeleton and cytosol - sense homeostatic perturbations and translate them into a cell-death-initiating signal.