John Hunter: Early association of type a behavior with cardiac mortality
Low Back Pain
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Free-floating (easily aroused) hostility is a cardinal symptom of the type A behavior pattern, the first psychosocial factor scientifically linked to coronary artery disease (CAD). Anger and hostility are associated with the onset and outcome of CAD, triggering of myocardial infarction, and lowering the threshold to ventricular arrhythmia, all increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death. The life of the legendary eighteenth century English surgeon John Hunter is illustrative of the type A behavior pattern. His demise and that of a contemporary surgeon provide important lessons for the management of anger in contemporary society.