John Hunter: Early association of type a behavior with cardiac mortality Academic Article Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Chronic Pain
  • Intervertebral Disc
  • Low Back Pain
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Mesenchymal Stromal Cells


  • Free-floating (easily aroused) hostility is a cardinal symptom of the type A behavior pattern, the first psychosocial factor scientifically linked to coronary artery disease (CAD). Anger and hostility are associated with the onset and outcome of CAD, triggering of myocardial infarction, and lowering the threshold to ventricular arrhythmia, all increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death. The life of the legendary eighteenth century English surgeon John Hunter is illustrative of the type A behavior pattern. His demise and that of a contemporary surgeon provide important lessons for the management of anger in contemporary society.

publication date

  • July 2014



  • Academic Article


Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.03.065

PubMed ID

  • 25057518

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 148

end page

  • 50


  • 114


  • 1