USP6 gene rearrangements occur preferentially in giant cell reparative granulomas of the hands and feet but not in gnathic location
Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal
Granuloma, Giant Cell
Giant cell reparative granulomas (GCRGs) are lytic lesions that occur predominantly in the gnathic bones and occasionally in the small bones of the hands and feet. They are morphologically indistinguishable from, and are regarded as synonymous with, solid variant of aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) in extragnathic sites. Identification of USP6 gene rearrangements in primary ABC has made possible investigating potential pathogenetic relationships with other morphologic mimics. USP6 gene alterations in giant cell-rich lesions (GCRG/ABC) of small bones of the hands and feet have not been previously studied. We investigated USP6 gene alterations in a group of 9 giant cell-rich lesions of the hands and feet and compared the findings with morphologically similar lesions including 8 gnathic GCRGs, 22 primary ABCs, 8 giant cell tumors of bone, and 2 brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism. Overall, there were 49 samples from 48 patients including 26 females and 22 males. Of the 9 lesions of the hands and feet, 8 (89%) showed USP6 gene rearrangements, whereas no abnormalities were identified in the 8 gnathic GCRGs, 2 brown tumors, or 8 giant cell tumors of bone. Of the 22 primary ABCs, 13 (59%) showed USP6 gene rearrangements. In conclusion, most GCRGs of the hands and feet represent true ABCs and should be classified as such. The terminology of GCRG should be limited to lesions from gnathic location. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for USP6 break-apart is a useful ancillary tool in the diagnosis of primary ABCs and distinguishing them from GCRGs and other morphologically similar lesions.