Renal replacement therapy Chapter uri icon


MeSH Major

  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy


  • Acute renal failure (ARF) is a commonly anticipated diagnosis in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Its actual frequency varies from less than 10% to approximately 25% in different series including different patient demographics and definitions of ARF.1-5 The elevations in serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations observed in a majority of these patients (more than 90%) are caused by renal hypoperfusion and related parenchymal dysfunction, the latter referred to as acute tubular necrosis (ATN)3,6 (Tables 33.1, 33.2). Between one-third and one-half of the observed ATN occurs during infection/sepsis, with the rest related to medical-surgical conditions, including hypotension and toxin exposure.3,6 ARF is typically accompanied by a number of comorbidities [i.e., respiratory failure (67%), heart failure (48%), and liver failure (31%)].7 In many series, more than one-half of the patients who develop ARF in the ICU require some form of renal replacement therapy (RRT).3,6,7 © 2008 Springer New York.

publication date

  • December 2008



  • Book Chapter


Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/978-0-387-68113-9_33

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 597

end page

  • 611