A novel and potent inhibitor of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase: A modulator of cardiovascular nitric oxide
PD 404182 [6H-6-imino-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyrimido)[1,2-c]-[1,3]benzothiazine], a heterocyclic iminobenzothiazine derivative, is a member of the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) that is reported to possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we used biochemical assays to screen LOPAC against human dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase isoform 1 (DDAH1), an enzyme that physiologically metabolizes asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous and competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. We discovered that PD 404182 directly and dose-dependently inhibits DDAH. Moreover, PD 404182 significantly increased intracellular levels of ADMA in cultured primary human vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in these cells, suggesting its therapeutic potential in septic shock-induced vascular collapse. In addition, PD 404182 abrogated the formation of tube-like structures by ECs in an in vitro angiogenesis assay, indicating its antiangiogenic potential in diseases characterized by pathologically excessive angiogenesis. Furthermore, we investigated the potential mechanism of inhibition of DDAH by this small molecule and found that PD 404182, which has striking structural similarity to ADMA, could be competed by a DDAH substrate, suggesting that it is a competitive inhibitor. Finally, our enzyme kinetics assay showed time-dependent inhibition, and our inhibitor dilution assay showed that the enzymatic activity of DDAH did not recover significantly after dilution, suggesting that PD 404182 might be a tightly bound, covalent, or an irreversible inhibitor of human DDAH1. This proposal is supported by mass spectrometry studies with PD 404182 and glutathione.