Pharmacological distinction between soluble and transmembrane adenylyl cyclases
The second messenger cAMP is involved in a number of cellular signaling pathways. In mammals, cAMP is produced by either the hormonally responsive, G protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs) or by the bicarbonate- and calcium-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). To develop tools to differentiate tmAC and sAC signaling, we determined the specificity and potency of commercially available adenylyl cyclase inhibitors. In cellular systems, two inhibitors, KH7 and catechol estrogens, proved specific for sAC, and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine proved specific for tmACs. These tools provide a means to define the specific contributions of the different families of adenylyl cyclases in cells and tissues, which will further our understanding of cell signaling.