Autophagy-dependent ATP release from dying cells via lysosomal exocytosis
ATP not only represents a key molecule for the intracellular storage and utilization of energy, but also plays a central role in the extracellular milieu, as it both recruits and activates immune cells. The secretion of ATP in the course of immunogenic cell death (ICD), a peculiar type of apoptosis that elicits adaptive immune responses, critically relies on the molecular machinery for autophagy. We have recently demonstrated that autophagy allows for the ICD-associated secretion of ATP as it contributes to the maintenance of lysosomal ATP stores. In addition, we found that ATP release in this setting is mediated by a molecular mechanism that involves lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)- and pannexin 1 (PANX1)-dependent lysosomal exocytosis.