Sigma 1 receptor plays a prominent role in IL-24-induced cancer-specific apoptosis
Interleukin-24 (IL-24), a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, is an immunomodulatory cytokine that also displays broad cancer-specific suppressor effects. The tumor suppressor activities of IL-24 include inhibition of angiogenesis, sensitization to chemotherapy, and cancer-specific apoptosis. We show that Sigma 1 Receptor (S1R), a ligand-regulated protein chaperone contributes to IL-24 induction of apoptosis. IL-24 generated from an adenovirus expressing IL-24 (Ad.IL-24) induces cancer-specific apoptosis by inducing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, reactive oxygen species production, and calcium mobilization. The present studies reveals that S1R is required for Ad.IL-24-induced cell death. We provide several lines of evidence to confirm a physical and functional interaction between IL-24 and S1R including: (a) S1R and IL-24 co-localize, as judged by immunocytochemical analysis studies; (b) S1R and IL-24 co-immunoprecipitate using either S1R or IL-24 antibody; (c) S1R agonist (+)-SKF10047 inhibits apoptosis by Ad.IL-24; (d) (+)-SKF10047-mediated inhibition of Ad.IL-24 results in: diminished ER stress protein expression; (e) Calcium mobilization; and (f) ROS production. Collectively, these data demonstrate that S1R interacts with IL-24 and suggest that IL-24:S1R interaction determines apoptosis induction by Ad.IL-24. These studies define Sigma 1 Receptor as a key initial mediator of IL-24 induction of cancer-specific killing. These findings have important implications for our understanding of IL-24 as a tumor suppressor protein as well as an immune modulating cytokine.