Immunosuppressive drug therapy
The first successful kidney transplantation between monozygotic identical twins did not require any immunosuppressive drugs. Clinical application of azathioprine and glucocorticosteroids allowed the transfer of organs between genetically disparate donors and recipients. Transplantation is now the standard of care, a life-saving procedure for patients with failed organs. Progress in our understanding of the immunobiology of rejection has been translated to the development of immunosuppressive agents targeting T cells, B cells, plasma cells, costimulatory signals, complement products, and antidonor antibodies. Modern immunopharmacologic interventions have contributed to the clinical success observed following transplantation but challenges remain in personalizing immunosuppressive therapy. © 2013 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
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