Upper tract imaging surveillance is not effective in diagnosing upper tract recurrence in patients followed for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Upper tract recurrence is a lifelong risk in patients with bladder cancer, but most cases will be missed on routine upper tract imaging. The majority of upper tract urothelial carcinoma can be diagnosed using a combination of thorough history taking, physical examination, urine cytology and sonography, indicating that routine surveillance imaging may not be the most efficient way to detect upper tract recurrence.