Black race as a prognostic factor in triple-negative breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving therapy: A large, single-institution retrospective analysis
Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) disproportionately affects black women. However, black race as a prognostic factor in TNBC has not been well studied. We evaluated the effect of race, among other variables, on outcomes in women with TNBC. A total of 704 patients with stages I-III TNBC treated with breast-conserving surgery ± adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy were identified from an institutional database. Competing risk analyses, Kaplan-Meier methods, and Cox proportional hazards models identified associations among clinicopathologic variables on locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant recurrence (DR), and overall survival (OS). LRR was defined as a biopsy proven, triple receptor-negative recurrence in the ipsilateral breast or regional lymph nodes. At a median follow-up of 51 months, there were 55 LRR, 61 DR, and 111 death events. Compared to non-black women, black women had higher disease stage and were more likely to receive axillary lymph node dissection, chemotherapy, and nodal irradiation (all P < 0.05). After adjustment for stage, age, lymphovascular invasion, chemotherapy, and RT on multivariate analysis, black race was prognostic for increased risk of LRR (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.17; 95 % confidence interval: 1.7-5.8; P = 0.0002). The 5-year risk of regional recurrence was higher in black women (10 vs. 2 %, P < 0.0001), but local failures were similar between groups (3.0 vs. 5.3 %, P = 0.15). RT was an independent predictor for decreased LRR and increased OS on multivariate analyses (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0003, respectively). Black women with TNBC had equivalent local control, but higher risk of regional nodal failure, compared with non-black counterparts. The routine use of comprehensive nodal irradiation may be beneficial for black women with TNBC.