Three-photon excited fluorescence imaging of unstained tissue using a GRIN lens endoscope Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Antigens, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Escherichia coli
  • Th1 Cells


  • We present a compact and portable three-photon gradient index (GRIN) lens endoscope system suitable for imaging of unstained tissues, potentially deep within the body, using a GRIN lens system of 1 mm diameter and 8 cm length. The lateral and axial resolution in water is 1.0 μm and 9.5 μm, respectively. The ~200 μm diameter field of view is imaged at 2 frames/s using a fiber-based excitation source at 1040 nm. Ex vivo imaging is demonstrated with unstained mouse lung at 5.9 mW average power. These results demonstrate the feasibility of three-photon GRIN lens endoscopy for optical biopsy.

publication date

  • January 2013



  • Academic Article



  • eng

PubMed Central ID

  • PMC3646593

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1364/BOE.4.000652

PubMed ID

  • 23667782

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 652

end page

  • 8


  • 4


  • 5