Neutrophil chemokines secreted by tumor cells mount a lung antimetastatic response during renal cell carcinoma progression
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
The mechanism by which renal cell carcinoma (RCC) colonizes the lung microenvironment during metastasis remains largely unknown. To investigate this process, we grafted human RCC cells with varying lung metastatic potential in mice. Gene expression profiling of the mouse lung stromal compartment revealed a signature enriched for neutrophil-specific functions that was induced preferentially by poorly metastatic cells. Analysis of the gene expression signatures of tumor cell lines showed an inverse correlation between metastatic activity and the levels of a number of chemokines, including CXCL5 and IL8. Enforced depletion of CXCL5 and IL8 in these cell lines enabled us to establish a functional link between lung neutrophil infiltration, secretion of chemokines by cancer cells and metastatic activity. We further show that human neutrophils display a higher cytotoxic activity against poorly metastatic cells compared with highly metastatic cells. Together, these results support a model in which neutrophils recruited to the lung by tumor-secreted chemokines build an antimetastatic barrier with loss of neutrophil chemokines in tumor cells acting as a critical rate-limiting step during lung metastatic seeding.