This study aims to evaluate αB-crystallin expression in infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas (IDCAs), as well as, its prognostic significance. Using a two-dimensional electrophoresis matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry investigation coupled to an immunohistochemical approach, we have assessed the expression of αB-crystallin in IDCAs, as well as, in other types of breast tumors (invasive lobular carcinomas, medullary carcinomas, and in situ ductal carcinomas). Correlation between αB-crystallin expression and clinicopathological parameters of breast cancer has also been investigated. Proteomic analyses revealed an increased expression of αB-crystallin in IDCA tumors compared to adjacent nontumor tissues. Overexpression of this molecular chaperone was further confirmed in 51 tumor specimens. Statistical analyses revealed, however, no significant correlations between αB-crystallin expression and clinicopathological parameters of the disease (tumor stage, patient age, hormone receptors, SBR grade, and lymph node metastases). This study demonstrates the upregulation of αB-crystallin in IDCA tissues which may highlight its possible involvement in breast cancer development. Our findings do not, however, support the involvement of this molecular chaperone in the progression of this disease.