Recombinant human interleukin-7 (CYT107) promotes T-cell recovery after allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Delays in immune recovery after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are associated with increased risks of infection and relapse. IL-7 has a central role in T-cell development and survival and enhances immune recovery in murine models of allo-HSCT. We performed a phase 1 trial of r-hIL-7 (CYT107) in recipients of T-cell depleted allo-HSCTs. Twelve patients were treated with escalating doses of r-hIL-7 administered weekly for 3 weeks. The study drug was well tolerated with only one patient developing acute skin GVHD. At baseline, patients were profoundly lymphopenic. CYT107 induced a doubling in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. The main effect of IL-7 was an expansion of effector memory T cells, the predominant subset identified in our patients. There was no significant effect on CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells, NK, or B cells. Importantly, we not only saw quantitative increases in T cells after a short course of IL-7 but also demonstrated an increase in functional T cells, including viral-specific T cells that recognize CMV. Enhanced TCR diversity was also observed after treatment. Our results indicate that r-hIL-7 can enhance immune recovery after a T cell-depleted allo-HSCT without causing significant GVHD or other serious toxicity (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00684008).