Genetics informatics trial (GIFT) of warfarin to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT): Rationale and study design Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • Venous Thrombosis
  • Warfarin


  • The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is higher after the total hip or knee replacement surgery than after almost any other surgical procedure; warfarin sodium is commonly prescribed to reduce this peri-operative risk. Warfarin has a narrow therapeutic window with high inter-individual dose variability and can cause hemorrhage. The genetics-informatics trial (GIFT) of warfarin to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a 2 × 2 factorial-design, randomized controlled trial designed to compare the safety and effectiveness of warfarin-dosing strategies. GIFT will answer two questions: (1) does pharmacogenetic (PGx) dosing reduce the rate of adverse events in orthopedic patients; and (2) is a lower target international normalized ratio (INR) non-inferior to a higher target INR in orthopedic participants? The composite primary endpoint of the trial is symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE (identified on screening ultrasonography), major hemorrhage, INR ≥ 4, and death.

publication date

  • October 2012



  • Academic Article



  • eng

PubMed Central ID

  • PMC3175019

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/tpj.2011.18

PubMed ID

  • 21606949

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 417

end page

  • 24


  • 12


  • 5