Distribution of 10-year and lifetime predicted risk for cardiovascular disease prior to surgery in the longitudinal assessment of bariatric surgery-2 study
Primary prevention guidelines recommend calculation of lifetime cardiovascular disease (CVD) predicted risk in patients who may not meet criteria for high short-term (10-year) Adult Treatment Panel III risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Extreme obesity and bariatric surgery are more common in women who often have low short-term predicted CHD risk. The distribution and correlates of lifetime CVD predicted risk, however, have not yet been evaluated in bariatric surgical candidates. Using established 10-year (Adult Treatment Panel III) CHD and lifetime CVD risk prediction algorithms and presurgery risk factors, participants from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 study without prevalent CVD (n = 2,070) were stratified into 3 groups: low 10-year (<10%)/low lifetime (<39%) predicted risk, low 10-year (<10%)/high lifetime (≥39%) predicted risk, and high 10-year (≥10%) predicted risk or diagnosed diabetes. Participants were predominantly white (86%) and women (80%) with a median age of 45 years and median body mass index of 45.6 kg/m(2). High 10-year CHD predicted risk was common (36.5%) and associated with diabetes, male gender, and older age, but not with higher body mass index or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Most participants (76%) with low 10-year predicted risk had high lifetime CVD predicted risk, which was associated with dyslipidemia and hypertension but not with body mass index, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In conclusion, bariatric surgical candidates without diabetes or existing CVD are likely to have low short-term, but high lifetime CVD predicted risk. Current data support the need for long-term monitoring and treatment of increased CVD risk factors in bariatric surgical patients to maximize lifetime CVD risk decrease (clinical trial registration, Long-term Effects of Bariatric Surgery, indentifier NCT00465829, available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT00465829).