Aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 activation by adenosine and histamine inhibits ischemic norepinephrine release in cardiac sympathetic neurons: mediation by protein kinase Cε Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • Myocardial Ischemia
  • Norepinephrine
  • Protein Kinase C-epsilon
  • Receptors, Histamine
  • Receptors, Purinergic P1


  • During myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, lipid peroxidation leads to the formation of toxic aldehydes that contribute to ischemic dysfunction. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2) alleviates ischemic heart damage and reperfusion arrhythmias via aldehyde detoxification. Because excessive norepinephrine release in the heart is a pivotal arrhythmogenic mechanism, we hypothesized that neuronal ALDH2 activation might diminish ischemic norepinephrine release. Incubation of cardiac sympathetic nerve endings with acetaldehyde, at concentrations achieved in myocardial ischemia, caused a concentration-dependent increase in norepinephrine release. A major increase in norepinephrine release also occurred when sympathetic nerve endings were incubated in hypoxic conditions. ALDH2 activation substantially reduced acetaldehyde- and hypoxia-induced norepinephrine release, an action prevented by inhibition of ALDH2 or protein kinase Cε (PKCε). Selective activation of G(i/o)-coupled adenosine A(1), A(3), or histamine H(3) receptors markedly inhibited both acetaldehyde- and hypoxia-induced norepinephrine release. These effects were also abolished by PKCε and/or ALDH2 inhibition. Moreover, A(1)-, A(3)-, or H(3)-receptor activation increased ALDH2 activity in a sympathetic neuron model (differentiated PC12 cells stably transfected with H(3) receptors). This action was prevented by the inhibition of PKCε and ALDH2. Our findings suggest the existence in sympathetic neurons of a protective pathway initiated by A(1)-, A(3)-, and H(3)-receptor activation by adenosine and histamine released in close proximity of these terminals. This pathway comprises the sequential activation of PKCε and ALDH2, culminating in aldehyde detoxification and inhibition of hypoxic norepinephrine release. Thus, pharmacological activation of PKCε and ALDH2 in cardiac sympathetic nerves may have significant protective effects by alleviating norepinephrine-induced life-threatening arrhythmias that characterize myocardial ischemia/reperfusion.

publication date

  • October 2012



  • Academic Article



  • eng

PubMed Central ID

  • PMC3464041

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1124/jpet.112.196626

PubMed ID

  • 22761303

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 97

end page

  • 105


  • 343


  • 1