Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) after granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy: A report of 2 cases
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
Two patients with recurrent lymphoma developed an acute, transient encephalopathy following administration of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), filgrastim, in anticipation of leukapheresis for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Head magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, compatible with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The proposed pathogenesis of PRES was rhG-CSF-induced neutrophil mobilization and activation with the release of inflammatory mediators, resulting in transient alteration of barrier permeability and capillary leakage.