Hemorrhage and risk of further hemorrhagic strokes following cerebral revascularization in Moyamoya disease: A review of the literature Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Cerebral Revascularization
  • Moyamoya Disease


  • The published cases and series of MMD treatment do show a risk of hemorrhage after treatment with either direct or indirect bypass both in the immediate as well as long-term future. While there are no discernible patterns in the rate of these hemorrhages, there is Class III evidence for the predictive effect of multiple microbleeds on preoperative imaging. Also, whereas revascularization, both direct and indirect, has been shown to reduce ischemic complications from MMD, there is not an association with the risk of hemorrhage after the procedure. Further studies need to be performed to help evaluate what the risk factors are and how to counsel patients as to the long-term outlook of this disease process.

publication date

  • January 2012



  • Academic Article



  • eng

PubMed Central ID

  • PMC3424679

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.4103/2152-7806.97730

PubMed ID

  • 22937473

Additional Document Info

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