Differential use of CCR5 by HIV-1 clinical isolates resistant to small-molecule CCR5 antagonists
CCR5 Receptor Antagonists
HIV Fusion Inhibitors
How HIV-1 resistant to small-molecule CCR5 antagonists uses the coreceptor for entry has been studied in a limited number of isolates. We characterized dependence on the N terminus (NT) and the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CCR5 of three vicriviroc (VCV)-resistant clinical isolates broadly cross-resistant to other CCR5 antagonists. Pseudoviruses were constructed to assess CCR5 use by VCV-sensitive and -resistant envelopes of subtype B and C viruses. We determined the extent of entry inhibition by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the NT and ECL2 in the presence and absence of VCV and the capacity of these pseudoviruses to use CCR5 mutants that contained scanning alanine substitutions in the CCR5 NT and ECL2 domains. Sensitive and resistant viruses were completely and competitively inhibited by the ECL2-specific MAb 2D7, whereas the NT-specific MAb CTC5 led to partial noncompetitive inhibition. VCV-resistant clones showed greater sensitivity to 2D7 than VCV-sensitive clones, but in the presence of saturating VCV concentrations, the 2D7 susceptibilities of two VCV-resistant viruses were similar to that of VCV-sensitive virus. The entry of VCV-sensitive and -resistant isolates was impaired to differing degrees by alanine mutations in CCR5; substitutions in NT had the greatest effect on viral entry. HIV-1 clinical isolates broadly resistant to CCR5 antagonists demonstrated significant heterogeneity in their use of CCR5. This heterogeneity makes it difficult to draw general conclusions about the relationship between patterns of CCR5 antagonist resistance and the use of specific CCR5 domains for entry.