RAS mutations in cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas in patients treated with BRAF inhibitors
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
Mutations in RAS, particularly HRAS, are frequent in cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas that develop in patients treated with vemurafenib. The molecular mechanism is consistent with the paradoxical activation of MAPK signaling and leads to accelerated growth of these lesions. (Funded by Hoffmann-La Roche and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00405587, NCT00949702, NCT01001299, and NCT01006980.).