Splenic extramedullary hematopoietic proliferation in Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms: Heterogeneous morphology and cytological composition
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
We studied 24 spleens with extramedullary hematopoietic proliferation (EMHP), a key feature of advanced-stage Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, obtained from 24 patients (14 primary myelofibrosis, 7 polycythemia vera and 3 unclassifiable). Hematoxylin and eosin, reticulin and trichrome stains, and immunohistochemical stains for myeloperoxidase, glycophorin-C, CD42b, CD34, CD117, CD8, nerve growth factor receptor and smooth muscle actin were evaluated. Clinical information was correlated with the morphological findings. Three distinct histological patterns of EMHP were recognized: diffuse (12), nodular (5), and mixed-nodular and diffuse (7). The preponderant lineage was granulocytic in diffuse, trilineage in nodular and erythroid in mixed EMHP. Erythropoiesis was largely intravascular, granulopoiesis was within the splenic cords and megakaryopoiesis was observed in both locations. The stromal changes paralleled the histological pattern with preservation of the splenic stromal and vascular architecture in the diffuse areas as opposed to areas of nodular EMHP. The morphological features of the splenic EMHP did not correlate with specific subtypes of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The mean duration of follow-up from initial diagnosis was 80 months. A total of 15 of the 24 patients died of disease: 8 of 12 (67%) with diffuse, 2 of 5 (40%) with nodular and 5 of 7 (71%) with mixed growth patterns. The mean duration from diagnosis to splenectomy was shorter in patients with diffuse (83 months) as compared with those with nodular EMHP (127 months). Our study demonstrates that splenic extramedullary hematopoietic proliferation in Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms shows distinct histological patterns that do not correlate with disease subtypes, but appear to suggest a trend between the histological patterns and clinical behavior. These results suggest a different biology of the disease in the nodular and diffuse extramedullary hematopoietic proliferation groups.