Diabetes mellitus, myocardial reperfusion, and outcome in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty (from HORIZONS AMI)
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
Regional Blood Flow
Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases mortality in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) but the responsible mechanism is not fully elucidated. We compared the rate of successful myocardial reperfusion measured by tissue myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) and outcomes in patients with and without DM undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for STEMI. Patients enrolled in the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS AMI) trial were analyzed according to presence of DM with respect to TMPG after PCI and outcomes at 30 days and 3 years. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify the independent contribution to mortality of DM and TMPG and the interaction between the 2 was assessed. Complete data were available for 3,265 patients, of whom 533 (16.3%) had DM. Diabetic patients were significantly older and heavier and had more risk factors for coronary disease and more previous MI, revascularization, and heart failure. There were no differences in rates of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 3 flow after PCI in the infarct artery or TMPG 2/3 between patients with and without DM. Compared to nondiabetics, mortality was significantly higher at 30 days and at 3 years in the DM group (1.8% vs 4.5%, p = 0.0002 and 5.4% vs 11.0%, p <0.0001, respectively). DM and TMPG were significantly associated with 3-year mortality, but there was no statistical interaction between DM and TMPG (p = 0.70). In conclusion, DM is associated with a significantly higher risk of death but this association is not mediated by impaired epicardial or myocardial reperfusion.