Risk factors for early-onset and late-onset hepatocellular carcinoma in asian immigrants with hepatitis B in the united states
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Hepatitis B, Chronic
HCC occurs in Asian immigrant HBV patients younger than currently recommended screening guidelines. A large majority of these early-onset patients did not have cirrhosis at the time of their HCC diagnosis; therefore, factors other than cirrhosis need to be considered when evaluating HCC risk in young patients. Factors associated with HCC development across all ages include cirrhosis and male gender, while family history and smoking history may identify younger Asian immigrant HBV patients at risk for HCC. Prospective validation, including cost-effectiveness evaluation, is necessary, but our results suggest that younger Asian HBV patients, especially those with a smoking history or family history of HCC, appear to have an increased risk for HCC and should be considered for enrollment in early screening programs regardless of their age.