In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using 3.5-Fr intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters for minimally-invasive, image-guided hyperthermia treatment of tumors in the brain. Feasibility was demonstrated by: (1) retro-fitting a commercial 3.5-Fr IVUS catheter with a 5 × 0.5 × 0.22 mm PZT-4 transducer for 9-MHz imaging and (2) testing an identical transducer for therapy potential with 3.3-MHz continuous-wave excitation. The imaging transducer was compared with a 9-Fr, 9-MHz ICE catheter when visualizing the post-mortem ovine brain and was also used to attempt vascular access to an in vivo porcine brain. A net average electrical power input of 700 mW was applied to the therapy transducer, producing a temperature rise of +13.5°C at a depth of 1.5 mm in live brain tumor tissue in the mouse model. These results suggest that it may be feasible to combine the imaging and therapeutic capabilities into a single device as a clinically-viable instrument.