CD95 rapidly clusters in cells of diverse origins
We have shown that CD95-mediated cell death requires a clustering of the receptor in distinct sphingolipid-rich domains of the cell membrane (Grassme et al., 2000, Cremesti et al., 2000). These domains form in response to acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)-induced ceramide generation. However, recent studies challenged the finding of early CD95 clustering (Algeciras-Schimnich et al., 2002). Here, six independent groups tested clustering of CD95 in diverse cell type including primary cells ex vivo and established cell lines. The studies show clustering of CD95 within seconds to minutes in all cell types tested by the different groups. In addition, clustering of CD95 was detected after stimulation of cells using three agonistic anti-CD95 antibodies (CH11, APO-1-3 and JO2), CD95 ligand and stimuli that induce an upregulation and activation of the endogenous CD95/CD95 ligand system. The data confirm our previous studies and suggest rapid, i.e., within seconds to minutes, CD95 clustering as a general phenomenon occurring in many cell types.