Cellular Evidence of Reverse Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) induce reverse cardiac remodeling by reducing myocyte size and collagen deposition. On the other hand, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) induces reverse cardiac remodeling by improving electromechanical synchronization. The clinical and structural changes produced by CRT in failing myocardium are known, but whether these changes are accompanied by reverse cellular remodeling is unknown. A total of 12 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) who underwent CRT and 15 patients who had LVAD therapy as clinically indicated and 8 healthy controls were compared. Demographics, echocardiographic data, and histologic samples from myocardial biopsies were analyzed and compared among groups. The authors found significant increases in myocyte size, myocardial fibrosis, and inflammation in both CHF groups who underwent CRT or LVAD, compared with healthy controls. After CRT or LVAD therapy, a significant decrease in myocyte size and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expression compared with healthy controls (P < .05) was found. In the CRT group, 6 of 8 patients demonstrated reduction in myocyte size and interstitial fibrosis. In addition, there was a decrease in myocyte size by 13%, total collagen by 27% and TNF-α by 49% in the CRT group vs 28%, 45%, and 45% in the LVAD group. CRT produces cellular reverse remodeling in failing human hearts that are comparable with those produced by LVAD therapy.