A Review of Second-line Chemotherapy and Prognostic Models for Disseminated Germ Cell Tumors Review uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
  • Testicular Neoplasms


  • Despite an excellent prognosis even for patients with disseminated disease, about 20% to 30% of men with advanced germ cell tumors are refractory to first-line chemotherapy or experience disease recurrence after an initial remission with such treatment. Many of these are cured with conventional dose cisplatin/ifosfamide-based regimen or high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue. Controversy exists regarding the optimal choice between these 2 second-line approaches, and available data for each is reviewed here. Clinical factors can help prognosticate patients, and recently an international effort developed a prognostic model for the second-line setting that can be universally applied in future studies.

publication date

  • June 2011



  • Review



  • eng

PubMed Central ID

  • PMC3230321

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.hoc.2011.03.007

PubMed ID

  • 21570609

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 557

end page

  • 76, viii -ix


  • 25


  • 3