Maximizing cure for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: Integration of surgery and chemotherapy
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Prospective, randomized clinical trials argue strongly for neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by high-quality cystectomy performed by an experienced surgeon operating in a high-volume center. Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery is also effective when therapeutic doses can be given in a timely fashion. Both contribute to improved overall survival; however, many patients receive only one or none of these options, and the barriers to receiving optimal, combined, systemic therapy and surgery remain to be defined. An aging, comorbid, and often unfit population increasingly affected by bladder cancer poses significant challenges in management of individual patients.