High-risk prostate cancer: The role of radical prostatectomy for local therapy
The management of high-risk prostate cancer can pose a unique challenge to the urologic oncologist. High-risk prostate cancer remains a real entity, especially in the inner-city urban population centers with high-risk ethnic groups. Although the role of radical prostatectomy is well defined for localized, low-to-intermediate-risk prostate cancer, its role in high-risk disease is more controversial. This is compounded by a lack of a universally accepted definition for 'high-risk' disease and the stage migration that has occurred in prostate cancer in the PSA era, rendering some historical perspectives less relevant. However, what has been accepted is the role of multimodal therapy in the management of this challenging group of patients. This article offers the reader an up-to-date detailed review of this topic, with specific emphasis on the role of radical prostatectomy in this clinical setting, including surgical considerations and outcomes. The advantages in terms of accurate pathologic staging with radical prostatectomy are presented. The role of robotic radical prostatectomy, which is increasingly utilized in the USA for the surgical treatment of prostate cancer in this clinical scenario, is discussed. In addition, we address the shortcomings of adequate clinical staging in this group of patients and discuss advances in imaging that might improve our capabilities in the future.