Expression of cell cycle-related molecular markers in patients treated with radical cystectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
Cell Cycle Proteins
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
We evaluated the association of p53, p21, p27, cyclin E, and Ki-67 expression with pathologic features and clinical outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on radical cystectomy specimens with pure SCC from 1997 to 2003. Bright field microscopy imaging coupled with advanced color detection software was used. The relationship between these markers and pathologic parameters as well as clinical outcome was assessed. The study included 152 patients (80.9% with bilharziasis), 99 males and 53 females, with a median age of 51 years (range, 36-74 years). The presenting stage was T2 or higher, and the presenting grade was grade II or lower in 93.4% of patients. Altered cyclin E expression was associated with stages (P = .02), altered p21 with grades (P = .02), and altered p27 with lymphovascular invasion (P = .01). In multivariable analyses, altered p53 expression was the only marker associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence (hazards ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.38, P = .04; and hazards ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-5.70, P = .05) and bladder cancer-specific mortality (hazards ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.99, P = .05, and hazards ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-5.54, P = .05) in all patients and in patients with T1-3N0 tumors, respectively. In conclusion, cell cycle-related molecular markers are commonly altered in SCC of the urinary bladder. Only p53 had a prognostic role in patients treated with radical cystectomy for SCC. Our findings support the need for further evaluation of molecular markers and their signaling pathways in SCC.