Chronic dizocilpine or apomorphine and development of neuropathy in two animal models II: Effects on brain cytokines and neurotrophins
Disease Models, Animal
Nerve Growth Factors
Dopaminergic and glutamatergic mechanisms are involved in the development and modulation of neuropathy. Cytokines and neurotrophins can be also involved in the supraspinal maintenance of neuropathic pain. We assessed the effects of chronic intraperitoneal (ip) injection of dizocilpine (MK-801), a N-methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) noncompetitive receptor antagonist, or apomorphine (APO), a dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor agonist, on neuropathic manifestations in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) and the spared nerve injury (SNI) models of neuropathy in rats. Six groups of rats were subjected to SNI or CCI (3 groups each) neuropathy and 5-7 days later received daily ip injections of saline, MK-801, or APO for two weeks. An additional control group was subjected to sham surgery without nerve lesion or injections. Rats were then sacrificed, and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, NGF, BDNF and GDNF were determined in the cingulum, striatum, and hippocampus. In both models, the neuropathy seen in the saline group was associated with decreased BDNF and an increase in IL-1β, IL-6, NGF and GDNF in most brain regions when compared to sham group. Chronic systemic MK-801 or APO injections decreased the neuropathic manifestations in both models, increased the BDNF level and modulated the other cytokines and neurotrophins. This modulation depended on the neuropathy model and the region/side of the brain studied. Our results showed that the changes in surpraspinal cytokines and neurotrophins could parallel neuropathic manifestations. These changes and the observed hyperalgesia can be modulated by chronic systemic injections of NMDA antagonists or DA agonists.