Molecular mechanisms of necroptosis: An ordered cellular explosion
Receptors, Death Domain
For a long time, apoptosis was considered the sole form of programmed cell death during development, homeostasis and disease, whereas necrosis was regarded as an unregulated and uncontrollable process. Evidence now reveals that necrosis can also occur in a regulated manner. The initiation of programmed necrosis, 'necroptosis', by death receptors (such as tumour necrosis factor receptor 1) requires the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1; also known as RIPK1) and RIP3 (also known as RIPK3), and its execution involves the active disintegration of mitochondrial, lysosomal and plasma membranes. Necroptosis participates in the pathogenesis of diseases, including ischaemic injury, neurodegeneration and viral infection, thereby representing an attractive target for the avoidance of unwarranted cell death.