Epidemiology of infections requiring hospitalization during long-term follow-up of pancreas transplantation
BACKGROUND.: Pancreas transplantation (PT) provides the best glycemic control option for diabetes mellitus but is associated with significant morbidities related to infectious disease. METHODS.: We performed a retrospective study of a cohort of consecutive PT recipients in whom PT was performed from 1998 to 2006 (n=216) and followed up them until July 2008. Data regarding infections, rejection, infection chemoprophylaxis, graft failure, absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs), and mortalities were collected. RESULTS.: Simultaneous pancreas and kidney, pancreas transplantation alone, and pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantations were performed in 42, 67, and 107 patients, with a mean (standard deviation) age at transplantation of 46.8 (8.03), 40.6 (10.1), and 43.7 (8.19) years. Of the simultaneous pancreas and kidney, pancreas transplantation alone, and PAK transplant recipients, 54.7%, 37.3%, and 58.8% were men. Overall, 63% developed a serious infection during the median follow-up of 6.4 years. Mean (range) number of infectious episodes was 2.3 (1-12), with mostly bacterial infections both within (68%) and after 1 year (78%). Incidence of bacterial and viral infections was greatest in the first 3 months after transplantation. Fungal infections were more constant. Bladder exocrine drainage was associated with higher risk of infection (hazard ratio=2.5, P<0.001). Infection within the first 3 months after transplantation was related to higher mortality after the first 3 months (hazard ratio=3.19). ALC was associated with the risk of first infections (P=0.005) and bacterial infections (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS.: Incidence of infections after PT was 63% and mostly bacterial. Bladder drainage increases infection risk and low ALC partially predicts episodes. Limitations include retrospective design, unequal composition of PT groups, and lack of data between kidney and PT for PAK.