Antiphospholipid syndrome treatment beyond anticoagulation: Are we there yet?
Persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies in association with thromboses and/or pregnancy morbidity is the hallmark of the antiphospholipid syndrome. The management of antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients has been focused on utilizing anti-thrombotic medications such as heparin or warfarin. Given that our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of antiphospholipid antibody-mediated thrombosis has been growing, it is highly likely that the current 'anti-thrombotic' approach to these patients will be replaced by an 'immunomodulatory' approach in the near future. This review article will address the experimental and/or clinical evidence behind some of these potential 'immunomodulatory' approaches (tissue factor inhibition, P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition, nuclear factor-kappaB inhibition, platelet glycoprotein receptor inhibition, hydroxychloroquine, statins, inhibition of beta(2)GPI and/or anti-beta(2)GPI binding to target cells, complement inhibition, and B cell inhibition) in antiphospholipid syndrome.