Viral strategies for the evasion of immunogenic cell death: Symposium
Virus Physiological Phenomena
Viral strategies for the evasion of immunogenic cell death (Symposium). J Intern Med 2010; 267: 526-542. Driven by co-evolutionary forces, viruses have refined a wide arsenal of strategies to interfere with the host defences. On one hand, viruses can block/retard programmed cell death in infected cells, thereby suppressing one of the most ancient mechanisms against viral dissemination. On the other hand, multiple viral factors can efficiently trigger the death of infected cells and uninfected cells from the immune system, which favours viral spreading and prevents/limits an active antiviral response, respectively. Moreover, several viruses are able to inhibit the molecular machinery that drives the translocation of calreticulin to the surface of dying cells. Thereby, viruses block the exposure of an engulfment signal that is required for the efficient uptake of dying cells by dendritic cells and for the induction of the immune response. In this review, we discuss a variety of mechanisms by which viruses interfere with the cell death machinery and, in particular, by which they subvert immunogenic cell death.