Multicenter analysis of 80 solid organ transplantation recipients with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease: Outcomes and prognostic factors in the modern era
PURPOSE Adult post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) has a reported 3-year overall survival (OS) of 35% to 40%. The impact of rituximab on the outcome of PTLD is not well defined. METHODS We examined the clinical features and outcomes among a large cohort of solid organ transplantation (SOT) -related patients with PTLD who were recently treated at four Chicago institutions (from January 1998 to January 2008). Results Eighty patients with PTLD were identified who had a median SOT-to-PTLD time of 48 months (range, 1 to 216 months). All patients had reduction of immunosuppression as part of initial therapy, whereas 59 (74%) of 80 patients received concurrent first-line rituximab with or without chemotherapy. During 40-month median follow-up, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) for all patients was 57%, and the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 62%. Patients who received rituximab-based therapy as part of initial treatment had 3-year PFS of 70% and OS 73% compared with 21% (P < .0001) and 33% (P = .0001), respectively, without rituximab. Notably, of all relapses, only 9% (4 of 34 patients) occurred beyond 12 months from PTLD diagnosis. On multivariate regression analysis, three factors were associated with progression and survival: CNS involvement (PFS, 4.70; P = .01; OS, 3.61; P = .04), bone marrow involvement (PFS, 2.95; P = .03; OS, 3.14; P = .03), and hypoalbuminemia (PFS, 2.96; P = .05; OS, 3.64; P = .04). Furthermore, a survival model by multivariate CART analysis that was based on number of adverse factors present (ie, 0, 1, > or = 2) was formed: 3-year PFS rates were 84%, 66%, 7%, respectively, and 3-year OS rates were 93%, 68%, 11%, respectively (P < .0001). CONCLUSION This large, multicenter, retrospective analysis suggests significantly improved PFS and OS associated with early rituximab-based treatment in PTLD. In addition, clinical factors at diagnosis identified patients with markedly divergent outcomes.