Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression in rat mesenchymal stem cells
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
VEGF is a potent inhibitor of BMP2 expression in MSCs, and supplementation or overexpression of VEGF inhibits osteogenesis in vitro and ectopic bone formation in vivo. Strategies to utilize MSCs in bone tissue engineering therefore require careful optimization and precise delivery of growth factors for maximal bone formation.