Preliminary cross-cultural adaptation of a new pediatric health-related quality of life scale in children with systemic lupus erythematosus: An international effort Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
  • Quality of Life


  • We developed a brief, new health-related quality of life measure for children with systemic lupus erythematosus that is valid in English for the United States, called Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY). The United States-English language questionnaire may not be applicable to most of the countries in the world and several United States population subgroups, such as Hispanics. In order to measure the impact of morbidity of systemic lupus erythematosus on the lives of children, adolescents, and their parents and assess the outcome of new therapies, it is critical to have a uniform measure of systemic lupus erythematosus-specific health-related quality of life that is valid for different cultures. We report the translation and cultural adaptation process undertaken by our team with the goal of cross-cultural validation of SMILEY in the following thirteen languages: Danish, Dutch, French (France), German (Germany), Hebrew, Italian, Portuguese (Brazil), Slovene, Spanish (USA and Puerto Rico), Spanish (Spain), Spanish (Argentina), Spanish (Mexico), and Turkish. We employed the following steps: establishing collaborative relationships with institutions across the globe; forward and back translation of SMILEY text; and cultural adaptation of SMILEY content. We are in the process of enrolling patients and conducting validation of the translated and adapted versions of SMILEY.

publication date

  • January 2010



  • Academic Article



  • eng

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1177/0961203309345770

PubMed ID

  • 19934176

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 83

end page

  • 8


  • 19


  • 1