Gene expression analysis previously identified molecular markers that are up-regulated in sural nerve biopsies from patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). To determine whether the same or additional genes are also up-regulated in skin, we applied gene microarray profiling and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis to skin punch biopsies from patients with CIDP and controls. Five genes, allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF-1), lymphatic hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1/XLKD1), FYN binding protein (FYB), P2RY1 (purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein-coupled, 1), and MLLT3 (myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia translocated to, 3), all associated with immune cells or inflammatory processes, were elevated in punch skin biopsies from patients with CIDP as compared to normal subjects or patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1 (CMT1). The average fold change of the 5 genes over normal expression, as determined by qPCR, was significantly elevated in skin biopsies from patients with CIDP in comparison to CMT1 or diabetic neuropathy, and similar to that seen in Lyme disease. The findings indicate the presence of inflammatory changes in the skin of patients with CIDP.