Salivary cortisol and psychopathology in adults bereaved by the September 11, 2001 terror attacks. Academic Article uri icon

Overview

MeSH

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • New York City
  • Prospective Studies
  • Saliva
  • Time Factors

MeSH Major

  • Bereavement
  • Depressive Disorder, Major
  • Hydrocortisone
  • September 11 Terrorist Attacks
  • Spouses
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic

abstract

  • This prospective study aimed to describe the nature and time course of HPA axis dysregulation and psychopathology among terror-bereaved spouses. Twenty-three spouses bereaved from September 11, 2001 terror attacks and 22 nonbereaved spouses were compared using a psychiatric diagnostic interview (SCID), 3 days of salivary cortisol collection, and a dexamethasone suppression test. Most subjects had repeated assessments at 6 month intervals during the 2 year study. After September 11, 2001, bereaved compared to nonbereaved had significantly higher rates ofposttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 68.1% versus 0%) and major depressive disorder (MDD; 45.5% versus 9.5%). Bereaved had significantly higher morning basal cortisol and less afternoon postdexamethasone cortisol suppression than nonbereaved. Among bereaved, those with PTSD without comorbid MDD had significantly greater afternoon postdexamethasone cortisol suppression than those without psychiatric disorders. Terror-related spouse death is a severe stressor associated with persistent HPA axis activation, PTSD, and MDD. However, bereaved spouses who developed PTSD and were not depressed had enhanced postdexamethasone cortisol suppression, evidence of heightened glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity.

publication date

  • 2009

has subject area

  • Adult
  • Bereavement
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Depressive Disorder, Major
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • New York City
  • Prospective Studies
  • Saliva
  • September 11 Terrorist Attacks
  • Spouses
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
  • Time Factors

Research

keywords

  • Journal Article

Identity

Language

  • eng

PubMed Central ID

  • PMC3725826

PubMed ID

  • 19967896

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 215

end page

  • 226

volume

  • 39

number

  • 3