In vivo lactate signal enhancement using binomial spectral-selective pulses in selective MQ coherence (SS-SelMQC) spectroscopy
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Tumor vasculature and tissue oxygen pressure can influence tumor growth, metastases, and patient survival. Elevated levels of lactate may be observed during the process of aggressive tumor development accompanied by angiogenesis (the evolution of the microenvironment). The noninvasive MR detection of lactate in tumor tissues as a potential biomarker is difficult due to the presence of co-resonating lipids that are present at high concentrations. Methods were previously reported for lactate editing using the SELective Multiple Quantum Coherence (SelMQC) method. Here we report a sequence "SS-SelMQC," Spectral-Selective SelMQC, which is a modified version of SelMQC using binomial pulses. Binomial pulses were employed in this editing sequence for frequency excitation or inversion of selective lactate resonances. Lactate detection has been demonstrated using SS-SelMQC, both in vitro (30 mM lactate/H(2)O doped with 25 microM Gd-DTPA) and in vivo (Dunning R3337-AT prostate tumors), and compared to similar measurements made with SelMQC. Lactate areas were measured from nonlocalized spectra, one-dimensional (1D) localized spectra, and two-dimensional chemical shift images (CSI) of the localized slice. In data from whole phantoms, the modified pulse sequence yielded enhancement of the lactate signal of 2.4 +/- 0.40 times compared to SelMQC. Similar in vivo lactate signal enhancement of 2.3 +/- 0.24 times was observed in 1D slice-localized experiment.