Subcellular localization of cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-regulated transcription coactivator 2 provides a link between obesity and breast cancer in postmenopausal women
Epidemiologic evidence supports a correlation between obesity and breast cancer in women. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important role in energy homeostasis and inhibits the actions of cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2). In postmenopausal women, the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-dependent regulation of aromatase is a determinant of breast tumor formation through local production of estrogens. The present work aimed to examine the effect of adipokines on aromatase expression and identify additional mechanisms by which prostaglandin E(2) causes increased aromatase expression in human breast adipose stromal cells. Treatment of human adipose stromal cells with forskolin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), to mimic prostaglandin E(2), resulted in nuclear translocation of CRTC2. Aromatase promoter II (PII) activity assays showed that CRTC2 in addition to forskolin/PMA treatment significantly increased PII-induced activity. CRTC2 binding to PII was examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and forskolin/PMA treatment was associated with increased binding to PII. Treatment of human adipose stromal cells with leptin significantly up-regulated aromatase expression associated with nuclear translocation of CRTC2 and increased binding of CRTC2 to PII. Adiponectin treatment significantly decreased forskolin/PMA-stimulated aromatase expression, consistent with the decreased nuclear translocation of CRTC2 and the decreased binding of CRTC2 to PII. The expression and activity of the AMP-activated protein kinase LKB1 was examined and found to be significantly decreased following either forskolin/PMA or leptin treatment. In contrast, adiponectin significantly increased LKB1 expression and activity. In conclusion, the regulation of aromatase by CRTC2, in response to the altered hormonal milieu associated with menopause and obesity, provides a critical link between obesity and breast cancer.