Treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Administration of antimicrobial agents, combined with bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids, is warranted in approximately half of AECBs (i.e., in bacterial exacerbations) to achieve a survival benefit. Simple clinical parameters, mainly sputum purulence, and biomarkers, such as procalcitonin, are useful in identifying patients requiring antibiotics. Advanced antibiotics (quinolones, macrolides, or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) are more effective than 'old' antibiotics in AECB; regimens of short duration (for 5 days) are preferred. There is no difference between several classes of advanced antibiotics regarding their short-term effectiveness; however, quinolones are associated with better long-term outcomes than macrolides. Newer quinolones and new formulations of macrolides enrich clinicians' armamentarium against AECB.