Novel microcatheters for selective intra-arterial injection of fluid in the rat brain.
Equipment Failure Analysis
The internal carotid artery (ICA) in the rat has a single extracranial branch, which supplies the muscles of mastication. The rat ICA also has multiple intracranial branches including (from proximal to distal): multiple small perforating arteries which supply the hypothalamus and the anterior choroidal artery which supplies the choroid plexus and part of the basal ganglia. At the ICA terminus, the vessel bifurcates into the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate selective injection of ICA branches in the rat.
Microcatheters (mucath1 and mucath2) were fabricated by plugging the tip of 169-mum outer diameter polyimide tubing and perforating the sidewalls. A 450-mum polydimethyl-siloxane cylinder was affixed to the distal tip of mucath2 but not mucath1. We evaluated the territory of mucath1 injection ex vivo using magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition of gradient echo MR imaging of brain specimens injected at necropsy. Territories of mucath1 and mucath2 injection were evaluated in vivo with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MR imaging. The territory of mucath2 also was evaluated in vivo with fused static microPET/T1 MR images performed after [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) injection. We evaluated additional catheterized and injected animals at 48 hours using physical examination, T2 MR images, and postmortem brain histologic specimens.
Gadolinium-diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and (18)FDG injected through mucath1 selectively opacified the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere, with no contralateral opacification. Gd-DTPA injected through mucath2 selectively opacified the territories of the hypothalamic perforating arteries, and anterior choroidal artery. There was no iatrogenic complication 48 hours after 20- to 25-minute injections performed with mucath1 or mucath2.
We have developed 2 microcatheters which can be placed in the ICA for selective injection of its branches. One microcatheter selectively injects the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. The other selectively injects only the hypothalamus and lateral thalamus.