The median nerve is one of the most commonly affected peripheral nerves in various pathologies such as entrapment syndromes or transections. The diagnostic procedures applied in these situations are electromyography, physical examination methods, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used mostly in imaging the central nervous system (CNS) to visualize white matter tracts. Several studies have shown the clinical applications of DTI in neuronal disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, and CNS tumors. Recently, peripheral nerves have been visualized with DTI. Also, in several pathologies such as carpal tunnel syndrome and transection of the median nerve, on postoperative follow-up anisotropy indexes were shown to be affected. However, new studies with larger series are needed.