Improved residue function and reduced flow dependence in MR perfusion using least-absolute-deviation regularization
Blood Flow Velocity
Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimates derived from singular value decomposition (SVD) of time intensity curves from Gadolinium bolus perfusion-weighted imaging are known to underestimate CBF, especially at high flow rates. We report the development of a model-independent delay-invariant deconvolution technique using least-absolute-deviation (LAD) regularization to improve the CBF estimation accuracy. Computer simulations were performed to compare the accuracy of CBF estimates derived from LAD, reformulated SVD (rSVD) and standard SVD (sSVD) techniques. Simulations were performed at image signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 20 to 400, cerebral blood volumes from 1% to 10%, and CBF from 2.5 mL/100 g/min to 176.5 mL/100 g/min to estimate the effect of these parameters on the accuracy of CBF estimation. The LAD method improved the CBF estimation accuracy by up to 32% in gray matter and 23% in white matter compared with rSVD and sSVD methods. LAD method also reduces the systematic bias of rSVD and sSVD methods to baseline SNR while producing more accurate and reproducible residue function calculation than either rSVD or sSVD method. Initial clinical implementation of the method on six representative clinical cases confirm the advantages of the LAD method over rSVD and sSVD methods.