Rapid membrane disruption by a perforin-like protein facilitates parasite exit from host cells Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Cell Membrane
  • Intracellular Membranes
  • Perforin
  • Protozoan Proteins
  • Toxoplasma
  • Vacuoles


  • Perforin-like proteins are expressed by many bacterial and protozoan pathogens, yet little is known about their function or mode of action. Here, we describe Toxoplasma perforin-like protein 1 (TgPLP1), a secreted perforin-like protein of the intracellular protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii that displays structural features necessary for pore formation. After intracellular growth, TgPLP1-deficient parasites failed to exit normally, resulting in entrapment within host cells. We show that this defect is due to an inability to rapidly permeabilize the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and host plasma membrane during exit. TgPLP1 ablation had little effect on growth in culture but resulted in a reduction greater than five orders of magnitude of acute virulence in mice. Perforin-like proteins from other intracellular pathogens may play a similar role in microbial egress and virulence.

publication date

  • January 23, 2009



  • Academic Article



  • eng

PubMed Central ID

  • PMC2662845

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1126/science.1165740

PubMed ID

  • 19095897

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 530

end page

  • 3


  • 323


  • 5913