Forkhead transcription factors (FoxOs) promote apoptosis of insulin-resistant macrophages during cholesterol-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress
Forkhead Transcription Factors
Decreased Akt and increased FoxO transcription factor activity during the endoplasmic reticulum stress response leads to increased apoptosis of insulin-resistant macrophages. FoxOs may have a dual cellular function, resulting in either proapoptotic or anti-inflammatory effects in an endoplasmic reticulum stress-modulated manner. In the complex plaque milieu, the ultimate effect is likely to be an increase in macrophage apoptosis, plaque inflammation, and destabilization.